Nature conservation

Threatened species

Bangalay Sand Forest of the Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions - profile

Indicative distribution

   Loading map...
The areas shown in pink and/purple are the sub-regions where the species or community is known or predicted to occur. They may not occur thoughout the sub-region but may be restricted to certain areas. ( click here to see geographic restrictions). The information presented in this map is only indicative and may contain errors and omissions.
Scientific name: Bangalay Sand Forest of the Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions
Conservation status in NSW: Endangered Ecological Community
Commonwealth status: Not listed
Gazetted date: 21 Oct 2005
Profile last updated: 21 Mar 2022


Bangalay Sand Forest of the Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions typically has a dense to open tree canopy, approximately 5 - 20 m tall, depending on exposure and disturbance history. The most common tree species include Bangalay (Eucalyptus botryoides) and Coast Banksia (Banksia integrifolia subsp. integrifolia), while Blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis) and Lilly Pilly (Acmena smithii) may occur in more sheltered situations, and Swamp Oak (Casuarina glauca) may occur on dunes exposed to salt-bearing sea breezes or where Bangalay Sand Forest adjoins Swamp Oak Floodplain Forest of the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions, as listed under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. The open shrub stratum may be dominated by sclerophyllous species, such as Old Man Banksia (Banksia serrata), Coast Teatree (Leptospermum laevigatum) and Tree Broom-heath (Monotoca elliptica), or mesophyllous, species, such as Coffee Bush (Breynia oblongifolia) and Sweet Pittosporum (Pittosporum undulatum), or a combination of both. Shrubs may vary in height from one to ten metres tall. The groundcover varies from open to dense, and may be sparse where the tree canopy is dense or where there is a thick litter of leaves and branches. Dominant species include Flax-lilies (Dianella spp.), Lepidosperma concavum, Spiny-headed Mat-rush (Lomandra longifolia), Bracken (Pteridium esculentum), and grasses including Blady Grass (Imperata cylindrica), Weeping Grass (Microlaena stipoides var. stipoides) and Kangaroo Grass (Themeda australis), while herbs, such as Slender Tick-trefoil (Desmodium gunnii), Kidney Weed (Dichondra repens), Whiteroot (Pratia purpurascens) and Ivy-leaved Violet (Viola hederacea), are scattered amongst the larger plants. Vines of Glycine clandestina, False Sarsparilla (Hardenbergia violacea), Running Postman (Kennedia rubicunda), Common Milk Vine (Marsdenia rostrata) and Snake Vine (Stephania japonica var. discolor) scramble through the groundcover and occasionally over shrubs or tree trunks.


Bangalay Sand Forest of the Sydney Basin and South East Corner bioregions is currently known from parts of the Local Government Areas of Sutherland, Wollongong, Shellharbour, Kiama, Shoalhaven, Eurobodalla and Bega Valley but may occur elsewhere in these bioregions. It is known to occur within a number of conservation reserves, including Royal, Seven Mile Beach, Conjola, Meroo, Murramarang, Eurobodalla and Biamanga National Parks, though these areas are often exposed to degradation by visitor overuse due to their proximity to popular beaches and camping areas.

Regional distribution and habitat

Click on a region below to view detailed distribution, habitat and vegetation information.


Recovery strategies

Information sources

IBRA Bioregion IBRA Subregion Known or predicted Geographic restrictions region
Other StateJervis Bay Territory Known None
South East CornerBateman Known None
South East CornerEast Gippsland Lowlands Known None
South East CornerSouth East Coastal Ranges Known None
Sydney BasinIllawarra Known None
Sydney BasinJervis Known None
Sydney BasinPittwater Known None
Sydney BasinSydney Cataract Known None
Sydney BasinWyong Known None