Tweed Estuary Nature Reserve conserves important remnant vegetation including wetlands of state significance and the endangered ecological community of swamp oak floodplain forest. The reserve provides a significant component of the shorebird habitat of the estuaries of the lower Tweed River, which is becoming increasingly critical for bird populations as more habitat is lost to development in surrounding areas. The reserve also provides habitat for the vulnerable black flying fox and grey headed flying fox.
Tweed Estuary Nature Reserve has significant cultural value to the local Aboriginal community. It is within the traditional lands of the Minjungbal people and is part of a landscape of cultural importance to the local Nganduwal Aboriginal people.