Key threatening processes are the things that threaten - or could threaten - the survival or evolutionary development of species, populations, or ecological communities. They are listed in the Threatened Species Conservation Act, and include:
  • Pest animals. Introduced animal species can compete with, and prey upon, native animals. They can also damage native plants and degrade natural habitats
  • Weeds. Weeds compete with native plants for resources such as light and nutrients. They can aggressively invade areas, displacing native plants and animals
  • Diseases. Exotic fungal infections, viruses and other pathogens can weaken and kill native species.
  • Habitat loss/change. From large-scale land clearing to the gathering of bushrock for suburban gardens, humans have degraded many native environments across the state.

The list below shows the 38 key threatening processes listed in NSW. Click on the links to find out more about each threatening process and the species it threatens. You can also find general information on weeds, pests and other threats on the NPWS website.

Click on column headers to sort
Key threatening process  Type of threat
Alteration to the natural flow regimes of rivers, streams, floodplains & wetlands.Habitat Loss/Change
Bushrock RemovalHabitat Loss/Change
Clearing of native vegetationHabitat Loss/Change
Aggressive exclusion of birds from woodland and forest habitat by abundant Noisy Miners Manorina melanocephala.Pest Animal
Alteration of habitat following subsidence due to longwall miningHabitat Loss/Change
Competition and grazing by the feral European rabbitPest Animal
Competition and habitat degradation by Feral Goats, Capra hircus Linnaeus 1758Pest Animal
Competition from feral honeybeesPest Animal
Death or injury to marine species following capture in shark control programs on ocean beachesOther Threat
Ecological consequences of high frequency firesHabitat Loss/Change
Entanglement in, or injestion of anthropogenic debris in marine and esturine environmentsOther Threat
Forest eucalypt dieback associated with over-abundant psyllids and Bell MinersOther Threat
Herbivory and environmental degradation caused by feral deerPest Animal
Human-caused Climate ChangeHabitat Loss/Change
Importation of red imported fire ants into NSWPest Animal
Infection by Psittacine circoviral (beak and feather) disease affecting endangered psittacine speciesDisease
Infection of frogs by amphibian chytrid causing the disease chytridiomycosisDisease
Infection of native plants by Phytophthora cinnamomiDisease
Introduction and establishment of Exotic Rust Fungi of the order Pucciniales pathogenic on plants of the family MyrtaceaeDisease
Introduction of the large earth bumblebee (Bombus terrestris)Pest Animal
Invasion and establishment of exotic vines and scramblersWeed
Invasion and establishment of Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius)Weed
Invasion and establishment of the Cane ToadPest Animal
Invasion of native plant communities by exotic perennial grassesWeed
Invasion of native plant communities by bitou bush & boneseedWeed
Invasion of native plant communities by African Olive Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Cif.Weed
Invasion of the yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) into NSWPest Animal
Invasion, establishment and spread of Lantana (Lantana camara L. sens. lat)Weed
Loss and degradation of native plant and animal habitat by invasion of escaped garden plants, including aquatic plantsWeed
Loss and/or degradation of sites used for hill-topping by butterfliesHabitat Loss/Change
Loss of Hollow-bearing TreesHabitat Loss/Change
Predation and hybridisation by Feral Dogs, Canis lupus familiarisPest Animal
Predation by feral catsPest Animal
Predation by the European Red FoxPest Animal
Predation by the Plague Minnow (Gambusia holbrooki)Pest Animal
Predation by the Ship Rat (Rattus rattus) on Lord Howe IslandPest Animal
Predation, habitat degradation, competition and disease transmission by Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa )Pest Animal
Removal of dead wood and dead treesHabitat Loss/Change