Nature conservation

Threatened species

Milton Ulladulla Subtropical Rainforest in the Sydney Basin Bioregion - profile

Indicative distribution

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The areas shown in pink and/purple are the sub-regions where the species or community is known or predicted to occur. They may not occur thoughout the sub-region but may be restricted to certain areas. ( click here to see geographic restrictions). The information presented in this map is only indicative and may contain errors and omissions.
Scientific name: Milton Ulladulla Subtropical Rainforest in the Sydney Basin Bioregion
Conservation status in NSW: Endangered Ecological Community
Commonwealth status: Critically Endangered
Gazetted date: 01 Nov 2002
Profile last updated: 20 Oct 2020


Milton Ulladulla Subtropical Rainforest is a dense forest up to 15 m tall with an emergent tree layer to 25 m tall. It is characterised by a fairly diverse canopy layer including Claoxylon australe, Acmena smithii, Dendrocnide excelsa, several Ficus species, Syzygium australe, Streblus brunonianus, Baloghia inophylla and Toona ciliata. The shrub and ground layers are generally sparse. The most common shrub species is Citriobatus pauciflorus. The ferns Asplenium flabellifolium and Pellaea falcata may also be present. Vines and lianas are common and include Malaisia scandens, Smilax australis and Cissus hypoglauca.


Milton Ulladulla Subtropical Rainforest is confined to the Milton region on the South Coast of NSW. It occurs roughly between Yatteyattah in the north, Milton in the east, Croobyar Creek in the west and the upper reaches of Burrill Lake in the south. Recorded from the local government area of Shoalhaven and may occur elsewhere in the Sydney Basin Bioregion.

Habitat and ecology

  • Confined to soils derived entirely or partially from the Milton Monzonite.
  • The largest remnant occurs within a steep gully on Currowar Creek; however, much smaller remnants closer to the town of Milton indicate that this community would have been widespread on rolling hills throughout the area.
  • A large proportion of this community has been cleared for agricultural development; one remnant is protected within a nature reserve and most other remnants occur on private land or roadsides and are frequently very small.
  • Provides habitat for threatened fauna species including the Grey-headed Flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) and the Powerful Owl (Ninox strenua).
  • Close to the southern limits of a number of flora in the Milton area, including Ficus superba subsp. henneana, Streblus brunonianus, Litsea reticulata, Toona australis, Elaeocarpus kirtonii, Pollia crispata, Maclura cochinchinensis and Legnephora moorei.
  • Near to the southernmost limits of the distribution of subtropical rainforest in eastern Australia.

Regional distribution and habitat

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Recovery strategies

Activities to assist this species

Information sources

IBRA Bioregion IBRA Subregion Known or predicted Geographic restrictions region
Other StateJervis Bay Territory Known None
Sydney BasinJervis Known None