Nature conservation

Threatened species

White Box Yellow Box Blakely’s Red Gum Woodland - profile

Indicative distribution

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The areas shown in pink and/purple are the sub-regions where the species or community is known or predicted to occur. They may not occur thoughout the sub-region but may be restricted to certain areas. ( click here to see geographic restrictions). The information presented in this map is only indicative and may contain errors and omissions.
Scientific name: White Box Yellow Box Blakely’s Red Gum Woodland
Conservation status in NSW: Endangered Ecological Community
Commonwealth status: Critically Endangered
Gazetted date: 15 Mar 2002
Profile last updated: 07 Sep 2017


White Box Yellow Box Blakely’s Red Gum Woodland (commonly referred to as Box-Gum Woodland) is an open woodland community (sometimes occurring as a forest formation), in which the most obvious species are one or more of the following: White Box Eucalyptus albens, Yellow Box E. melliodora and Blakely's Red Gum E. blakelyi. Intact sites contain a high diversity of plant species, including the main tree species, additional tree species, some shrub species, several climbing plant species, many grasses and a very high diversity of herbs. The community also includes a range of mammal, bird, reptile, frog and invertebrate fauna species. Intact stands that contain diverse upper and mid-storeys and groundlayers are rare. Modified sites include the following:
  • Areas where the main tree species are present ranging from an open woodland formation to a forest structure, and the groundlayer is predominantly composed of exotic species; and
  • Sites where the trees have been removed and only the grassy groundlayer and some herbs remain.

    The Australian Government listing of White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland is slightly different to the NSW listing. Areas that are part of the Australian Government listed ecological community must have either:

  • An intact tree layer and predominately native ground layer; or
  • An intact native ground layer with a high diversity of native plant species but no remaining tree layer.
  • Distribution

    Box-Gum Woodland is found from the Queensland border in the north, to the Victorian border in the south. It occurs in the tablelands and western slopes of NSW.

    Habitat and ecology

    • Characterised by the presence or prior occurrence of White Box, Yellow Box and/or Blakely's Red Gum.
    • The trees may occur as pure stands, mixtures of the three species or in mixtures with other trees, including wattles.
    • Commonly co-occurring eucalypts include Apple Box (E. bridgesiana), Red Box (E. polyanthemos), Candlebark (E. rubida), Snow Gum (E. pauciflora), Argyle Apple (E. cinerea), Brittle Gum (E. mannifera), Red Stringybark (E. macrorhyncha), Grey Box (E. microcarpa), Cabbage Gum (E. amplifolia) and others.
    • The understorey in intact sites is characterised by native grasses and a high diversity of herbs; the most commonly encountered include Kangaroo Grass (Themeda australis), Poa Tussock (Poa sieberiana), wallaby grasses (Austrodanthonia spp.), spear-grasses (Austrostipa spp.), Common Everlasting (Chrysocephalum apiculatum), Scrambled Eggs (Goodenia pinnatifida), Small St John's Wort (Hypericum gramineum), Narrow-leafed New Holland Daisy (Vittadinia muelleri) and blue-bells (Wahlenbergia spp.).
    • Shrubs are generally sparse or absent, though they may be locally common.
    • Remnants generally occur on fertile lower parts of the landscape where resources such as water and nutrients are abundant.
    • Sites with particular characteristics, including varying age classes in the trees, patches of regrowth, old trees with hollows and fallen timber on the ground are very important as wildlife habitat.
    • Sites in the lowest parts of the landscape often support very large trees which have leafy crowns and reliable nectar flows - sites important for insectivorous and nectar feeding birds.
    • Sites that retain only a grassy groundlayer and with few or no trees remaining are important for rehabilitation, and to rebuild connections between sites of better quality.
    • Remnants support many species of threatened fauna and flora.
    • Retention of remnants is important as they contribute to productive farming systems (stock shelter, seed sources, sustainable grazing and water-table and salinity control).
    • The fauna of remnants (insectivorous birds, bats, etc) can contribute to insect control on grazing properties.
    • Some of the component species (e.g. wattles, she-oaks, native legumes) fix nitrogen that is made available to other species in the community, while fallen timber and leaves recycle their nutrients.
    • Disturbed remnants are considered to form part of the community, including where the vegetation would respond to assisted natural regeneration.

    Regional distribution and habitat

    Click on a region below to view detailed distribution, habitat and vegetation information.


    Recovery strategies

    Activities to assist this species

    Information sources

    IBRA Bioregion IBRA Subregion Known or predicted Geographic restrictions region
    Brigalow Belt SouthLiverpool Plains Known None
    Brigalow Belt SouthLiverpool Range Known None
    Brigalow Belt SouthMoonie-Barwon Interfluve Predicted None
    Brigalow Belt SouthNorthern Basalts Known None
    Brigalow Belt SouthNorthern Outwash Known None
    Brigalow Belt SouthPilliga Known None
    Brigalow Belt SouthPilliga Outwash Known None
    Brigalow Belt SouthTalbragar Valley Known None
    NandewarInverell Basalts Known None
    NandewarKaputar Known None
    NandewarNandewar Northern Complex Known None
    NandewarPeel Known None
    New England TablelandsArmidale Plateau Known None
    New England TablelandsBeardy River Hills Known None
    New England TablelandsBinghi Plateau Known None
    New England TablelandsBundarra Downs Known None
    New England TablelandsDeepwater Downs Known None
    New England TablelandsEastern Nandewars Known None
    New England TablelandsEbor Basalts Predicted None
    New England TablelandsGlenn Innes-Guyra Basalts Known None
    New England TablelandsMoredun Volcanics Known None
    New England TablelandsNightcap Known None
    New England TablelandsNortheast Forest Lands Known None
    New England TablelandsRound Mountain Known None
    New England TablelandsSevern River Volcanics Known None
    New England TablelandsStanthorpe Plateau Known None
    New England TablelandsTenterfield Plateau Known None
    New England TablelandsTingha Plateau Known None
    New England TablelandsWalcha Plateau Known None
    New England TablelandsWongwibinda Plateau Known None
    New England TablelandsYarrowyck-Kentucky Downs Known None
    NSW North CoastCarrai Plateau Known None
    NSW North CoastCataract Known None
    NSW North CoastCoffs Coast and Escarpment Predicted West of a line running north to south along Five Day Creek
    NSW North CoastEllerston Known None
    NSW North CoastGuy Fawkes Known None
    NSW North CoastRocky River Gorge Known None
    NSW North CoastTomalla Known None
    NSW North CoastUpper Hunter Known None
    NSW South Western SlopesCapertee Valley Known None
    NSW South Western SlopesInland Slopes Known None
    NSW South Western SlopesLower Slopes Known None
    South East CornerSouth East Coastal Ranges Known None
    South Eastern HighlandsBathurst Known None
    South Eastern HighlandsBondo Known None
    South Eastern HighlandsBungonia Known None
    South Eastern HighlandsCapertee Uplands Known None
    South Eastern HighlandsCrookwell Known None
    South Eastern HighlandsHill End Known None
    South Eastern HighlandsKanangra Known None
    South Eastern HighlandsMonaro Known None
    South Eastern HighlandsMurrumbateman Known None
    South Eastern HighlandsOberon Known None
    South Eastern HighlandsOrange Known None
    South Eastern QueenslandWoodenbong Known None
    Sydney BasinBurragorang Known None
    Sydney BasinHunter Known None
    Sydney BasinKerrabee Known None
    Sydney BasinWollemi Known None