Nature conservation

Threatened species

Koala population between the Tweed River and Brunswick River east of the Pacific Highway - profile

Indicative distribution

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The areas shown in pink and/purple are the sub-regions where the species or community is known or predicted to occur. They may not occur thoughout the sub-region but may be restricted to certain areas. ( click here to see geographic restrictions). The information presented in this map is only indicative and may contain errors and omissions.
Scientific name: Phascolarctos cinereus - endangered population
Conservation status in NSW: Endangered Population
Commonwealth status: Not listed
Gazetted date: 22 Apr 2016
Profile last updated: 29 Oct 2018


The koala is a large tree-dwelling leaf eater that occupies a wide but fragmented range in eastern Australia. The Tweed and Brunswick Rivers Koala Population is listed as an Endangered Population under the Threatened Species Conservation (TSC) Act 1995.


A remnant population of koalas occupies the coastal lowlands between the Tweed and Brunswick Rivers east of the Pacific Highway. To the east the population is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, to the south by the Brunswick River, to the north by the Tweed River and to the west by the Pacific Highway. The population is mostly associated with the largest areas of natural vegetation remaining in the coastal lowlands from north of Bogangar south to the Brunswick River, although the resident population currently only extends to south of Pottsville.

Habitat and ecology

  • Approximately 3,328 hectares of fragmented but otherwise suitable koala habitat remains between the Tweed and Brunswick Rivers east of the Pacific Highway.
  • Of this, 237 hectares is considered to be primary koala habitat where the preferred food trees Swamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta), Forest Red Gum (E. tereticornis) and/or Tallowwood (E. microcorys) grow on medium to high nutrient soils.
  • A further 2,143 hectares is considered to be secondary (Class A) koala habitat where Swamp Mahogany, Forest Red Gum and/or Tallowwood are sub-dominant elements.
  • An additional 948 hectares is considered secondary (Class B) habitat containing Tallowwood and/or Grey Gum (E. propinqua) growing on low nutrient soils
  • Between the Tweed and Brunswick Rivers east of the Pacific Highway, a total of 1,120 hectares of this preferred koala habitat currently occurs within conservation reserves.
  • The Pacific Highway, a four lane dual carriageway, represents the western boundary of the population. Major roads are considered a significant barrier to the movement of koalas, functioning both as a substantial habitat gap that resident koalas are reluctant to cross and as a significant source of mortality.

Regional distribution and habitat

Click on a region below to view detailed distribution, habitat and vegetation information.


Recovery strategies

Activities to assist this species

IBRA Bioregion IBRA Subregion Known or predicted Geographic restrictions region
South Eastern QueenslandBurringbar-Conondale Ranges Known Between the Tweed and Brunswick Rivers east of the Pacific Highway
South Eastern QueenslandSunshine Coast-Gold Coast Lowlands Predicted Between the Tweed and Brunswick Rivers and east of the Pacific Highway