Nature conservation

Threatened species

Nightcap Oak - profile

Indicative distribution

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The areas shown in pink and/purple are the sub-regions where the species or community is known or predicted to occur. They may not occur thoughout the sub-region but may be restricted to certain areas. ( click here to see geographic restrictions). The information presented in this map is only indicative and may contain errors and omissions.
Scientific name: Eidothea hardeniana
Conservation status in NSW: Endangered
Commonwealth status: Critically Endangered
Gazetted date: 18 Jan 2002
Profile last updated: 20 Aug 2018


Nightcap Oak is a newly discovered tree in the Proteaceae (Banksia and Grevillea) family. The largest specimens are up to 40 m tall, although most are smaller. The bark is grey and slightly flaky, with fine horizontal crinkling. The tough leaves are paler on the underside. Adult leaves are dark green, smooth along the edges, and have distinctive pale veins. Leaves on juvenile plants are orange to red and strongly toothed with red veins and stalks. The creamy flowers are in compact heads. The globular fruits are 3.5–4.0 cm long, 3.0–3.7 cm diameter, green maturing to dull golden yellow.


Nightcap Oak has been found only in the Nightcap Range north of Lismore.

Habitat and ecology

  • The species occurs in upland warm temperate rainforest, usually near creeks.
  • Pollen movement is mostly mediated by small nocturnal beetles.
  • Flowering occurs from mid-October to mid-November.
  • The fruit takes over one year to develop and reaches full size in about mid December. It then changes colour from green to dull yellow over the following two to three months, falling from mid-February to early March.
  • The flesh of E. hardeniana fruit is thought to be unpalatable to the local dispersal organisms. Generally, once the fruit falls to the ground, bush rats (Rattus fuscipes) chew through the flesh and hard endocarp to feed on the seed.

Regional distribution and habitat

Click on a region below to view detailed distribution, habitat and vegetation information.


Recovery strategies

Activities to assist this species

Information sources

IBRA Bioregion IBRA Subregion Known or predicted Geographic restrictions region
South Eastern QueenslandBurringbar-Conondale Ranges Predicted None
South Eastern QueenslandScenic Rim Known Nightcap National Park
South Eastern QueenslandSunshine Coast-Gold Coast Lowlands Predicted None