Clearing of native vegetation - key threatening process listing

NSW Scientific Committee - final determination



The Scientific Committee, established by the Threatened Species Conservation Act, has made a Final Determination to list "Clearing of native vegetation" as a KEY THREATENING PROCESS on Schedule 3 of the Act. Listing of Key Threatening Processes is provided for by Part 2 of the Act.

The Scientific Committee made a Preliminary Determination to support the proposal to list the "Loss of biodiversity as a result of loss and/or degradation of habitat following clearing and fragmentation of native vegetation." The Scientific Committee considers that "Clearing of native vegetation" is a more appropriate name for this Key Threatening Process.

The Scientific Committee has found that:

1. Clearing of native vegetation is recognised as a major factor contributing to loss of biological diversity.

2. Land Clearance is listed as a Key Threatening Process under the Commonwealth's Environment Protection and Biodiversity Act, 1999.

3. In New South Wales since 1788 at least 61% of the original native vegetation has been cleared, thinned or substantially or significantly disturbed (Environment Protection Authority 1997). The proportion of area cleared varies between region and community type (Native Vegetation Advisory Council 1999) and in some cases has exceeded 90% (for example - South East Grassy Forests - (Keith & Bedward 1999).

4. Clearing of any area of native vegetation, including areas less than 2 hectares in extent, may have significant impacts on biological diversity.

5. Some examples of the impacts of the clearing of native vegetation on biological diversity are:

Destruction of habitat results in loss of local populations of individual species

Destruction of habitat is the major cause of loss of biological diversity. For species of restricted distribution, clearing of native vegetation may result in total extinction, for more widespread species there may be loss of local genotypes.

Fragmentation

Clearing of native vegetation often results in fragmentation, the process by which initially contiguous areas of habitat are separated into a number of smaller areas. Fragmentation impacts include the creation of small isolated populations with limited gene flow between populations, leading to inbreeding depression and reduced potential to adapt to environmental change. Fragmentation also leads to the loss or severe modification of the interactions between species, including those interactions that are important for the survival of species. Small isolated populations may be subject to local extinction from stochastic events. The hostility of the surrounding (cleared) environment is a major factor in limiting movement of organisms between patches. The physical environment within patches may be altered as a result of creation of edges and anthropogenic influences.

Important variables that must be considered in assessing the impacts of fragmentation include the distance apart of the fragments, the area of the fragments and their shape. Increasing the edge/area ratio increases the impacts of edge effects such as changed microclimate and susceptibility to invasion by non-indigenous species. This response of particular species to fragmentation will be affected by the mobility of the species (both as adult and in dispersal stages) and the scale of the fragmentation relative to the environmental scale of the species habitat.

Expansion of dryland salinity

The evidence of a relationship between the clearing of native vegetation and dryland salinity is substantial. There is evidence that increases in land salinisation can be attributed to rising groundwater consequent on clearing of native vegetation. There is evidence of a relationship between increases in stream salinity and the proportion of catchments cleared.

Riparian zone degradation

Riparian zones and the organisms inhabiting them have been substantially altered as a result of clearing of native vegetation. Clearing of native riparian vegetation has led to bank erosion, reduced nutrient filtering capacity and changes to stream behaviour. Aquatic communities throughout catchments and in coastal waters have been impacted by sedimentation and other changes following clearing of native vegetation.

Increased greenhouse gas emissions

Clearing of native vegetation results in emissions of greenhouse gases, both from burning of cleared vegetation and from the loss of soil organic matter. Agricultural practices after clearing may further contribute to greenhouse gas emissions.

Increased habitat for invasive species

The creation of increased edge habitat and disturbed habitat may permit the establishment and spread of exotic species which may displace native species. A number of native species may also have increased as a result of clearing of native vegetation (for example noisy miner).

Loss of leaf litter layer

Clearing of leaf litter and fallen logs, often associated with clearing and/or burning of the understorey for clearing, removes habitat for a wide variety of vertebrates and invertebrates which live in the leaf litter and in the fallen logs - including reptiles, small mammals, invertebrates, for example, spiders, molluscs, millipedes, ants etc. These impacts may affect ecological functioning. Loss of the leaf litter also exposes bare soil which will be susceptible to soil erosion and drying, and hence affects the soil biota, and may make sites more vulnerable to weed invasion.

Loss or disruption of ecological function

Survival of ecological communities relies on the maintenance of ecological processes and interactions. Loss of habitat and fragmentation may disrupt these processes. For example, small fragments may not be large enough to support viable populations of pollinators or seed dispersers so that reproduction of plant species will be impaired.

Disruption of ecological processes may continue long after initial clearing of native vegetation has occurred, with consequent continued decline in biological diversity. In cleared and/or fragmented landscapes there may be an extinction debt, whereby, as a consequence of reduction in population size and disturbance to population structure, future local population extinction is inevitable.

Changes to soil biota

Clearing of native vegetation and its replacement by pasture or crops, and the subsequent management of these agricultural systems, may be accompanied by changes to the soil biota, both through the introduction of exotic species and declines in native species.

6. Examples of activities or developments which may result in the clearing of native vegetation include inter alia:

  • Conversion of native vegetation to crops, improved pasture or plantations
  • Urban development.
  • Development for industry and/or infrastructure (for example quarries, mines, factory sites, dams, roads, railways, power lines)
  • Removal of understorey e.g. along roadsides or at picnic areas and "cleaning up" of native vegetation. (removal of one stratum may result in the loss or longterm modification of the structure of the native vegetation and also composition and function).
7. Clearing has been identified as a threat to a number of species, communities and populations listed under the Threatened Species Conservation Act (Appendix 1) and could cause species, populations or ecological communities that are not threatened to become threatened (Appendix 2). The determination applies to clearing as a process, regardless of the species, populations and ecological communities affected in a particular instance.

8. In view of the above the Scientific Committee is of the opinion that 'Clearing of native vegetation' adversely affects two or more threatened species, populations or ecological communities and could cause species, populations or ecological communities that are not threatened to become threatened.


Definitions

Clearing

Clearing is defined as the destruction of a sufficient proportion of one or more strata (layers) within a stand or stands of native vegetation so as to result in the loss, or long term modification, of the structure, composition and ecological function of stand or stands. The definition of clearing does not preclude management activities to control exotic species, or Australian species growing outside their natural geographic range.


Destruction

Destruction may include physical removal by cutting, underscrubbing, bulldozing etc., or processes which leave a proportion of one or more strata on site in a dead or dying state [for example ringbarking, poisoning or herbicide spraying (except where specifically targeted at weed control) or modification of abiotic conditions].


Ecological function

Ecological function encompasses the ecological processes/interactions that occur within an ecological community.

Ecological function includes:

  • Provision of habitat for native biota
  • Provision of food and other resources for native biota
  • Maintenance of interactions between species (e.g. pollination, dispersal, mutualism, competition)
  • Nutrient cycling and filtering and retention of nutrients
  • Carbon storage
  • Maintenance of soil processes
  • Maintenance of catchment scale hydrological and geochemical processes
  • Maintenance of landscape scale ecological processes
Some of the processes and interactions within ecological communities may depend upon the presence of leaf litter and fallen or standing dead trees.

Long term modification of native vegetation

Long term modification of native vegetation is the alteration of the composition, structure or ecological function of an ecological community such that recovery by natural means will take periods of time from decades to centuries (depending on the plant community concerned) or will require substantial management intervention.

Selective removal or alteration of one or more strata - for example removal and replacement of the understorey or removal of the canopy which can result in alteration of composition, structure and ecological function of the plant community may constitute long term modification.


Loss of native vegetation

Loss of native vegetation is the removal of native vegetation by direct or indirect actions.

Loss of all strata may occur when native vegetation is replaced by infrastructure (for example, buildings or roads) or by the removal of pre-existing native vegetation and its replacement by species not previously present.


Native Vegetation

Native vegetation is made up of plant communities, comprising primarily indigenous species, the composition and structure of which reflects the interactions between plant species, between plants and fauna and with the environment. Native vegetation includes canopy trees (where present), understorey, ground cover and below ground biomass (roots, bulbs and the seed bank).

For the purposes of this Determination native vegetation does not include marine vegetation within the meaning of the Fisheries Management Act.

Introduced species may be prominent in many plant communities, but defining an arbitrary proportion of non-indigenous species, measured at a single point in time, as setting a limit between native and non-native vegetation is inappropriate. For example, at some sites, in 'good' seasons, there can be a very large cover of annual weeds in the ground cover, but at other times, these weeds may provide little or no cover.

If the composition has been altered (as a result of invasion by species outside their natural distributional range or the selective removal of species) or the structure modified, the vegetation is still native vegetation if the ecological functions of the unmodified plant communities are maintained and if composition and structure could be substantially restored in the short term through management intervention. Regrowth and newly colonising stands of indigenous species are native vegetation.

Native vegetation is dynamic and subject to change, either endogenous as in some successions, or in response to external factors - such as seasonal variation, longer term changes in climate (drought-wet cycles) or disturbances such as fire or storm.


Plant Community

A plant community is an assemblage of plant species occupying a particular area.

The composition of a plant community is the assemblage of plant species that occur in the community.

Plant communities are dynamic and subject to change, either endogenous as in some successions, or in response to external factors - such as seasonal variation, longer term changes in climate (drought-wet cycles) or disturbances such as fire or storm.


Stand

A group of co-occurring plants being an observable feature in the landscape, stands may be of different size depending on the types of plants concerned, the availability of habitat and post clearing. A lichen or bryophyte mat on a rock covering a few tens of square centimetres may constitute a stand, as may a forest covering hundreds of hectares.


Stratum (plural strata)

A more or less distinct layer within a stand of vegetation - for example ground layer, understorey, canopy, emergents. Some types of vegetation have a more complex structure and more strata than others. For example a rainforest compared with a grassland.

Structure

The structure of a plant community is the three dimensional distribution of biomass within the community. Structure can be described in terms of more or less distinct layers (strata) - for example ground layer, understorey, canopy, emergents, and the spacing of plants (for example where trees are present, forest is distinguished from woodland by the canopies of the trees in a forest being closer together than those in a woodland).

Proposed Gazettal date: 21/09/01

Exhibition period: 21/09/01 - 26/10/01


References:

Environment Protection Authority (1997). New South Wales, State of the Environment. Chatswood, N.S.W : New South Wales Environment Protection Authority.

Keith, D. and Bedward, M. (1999). Native vegetation of the South East Forests Region, Eden, New South Wales. Cunninghamia 6, 1-218.

Native Vegetation Advisory Council (1999). 'Setting the Scene. The Native Vegetation of NSW'. (Department of Land and Water Conservation: Sydney.)


Bibliography

The literature on clearing and/or fragmentation of native vegetation is very extensive. This bibliography is not intended as an exhaustive guide to the subject but documents references consulted by members of the Scientific Committee in their deliberations on the issue.

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APPENDIX 1

Threatened species, populations and ecological communities adversely affected by this threatening process.

This list is provided to substantiate that the key threatening process satisfies section 15(a) of the Threatened Species Conservation Act. The determination applies to clearing of native vegetation as a process, regardless of the species, populations and communities affected in a particular instance.


Vertebrates

Mammals

Aepyprymnus rufescens - Rufous Bettong


Cercartetus concinnus - Western Pygmy Possum

Cercartetus nanus - Eastern Pygmy-possum

Chalinolobus dwyeri - Large-eared Pied Bat

Chalinolobus picatus - Little Pied Bat

Dasyurus maculatus - Spotted-tailed Quoll

Isoodon obesulus - Southern Brown Bandicoot

Lasiorhinus latifrons - Southern Hairy-nosed Wombat

Macropus dorsalis - Black-striped Wallaby

Ningaui yvonneae - Southern Ningaui

Nyctophilus timoriensis - Greater Long-eared Bat

Petaurus australis - Yellow-bellied Glider

Petaurus norfolcensis - Squirrel Glider

Phascogale tapoatafa - Brush-tailed Phascogale

Phascolarctos cinereus - Koala

Pseudomys apodemoides - Silky Mouse

Pseudomys bolami - Bolam's Mouse

Pseudomys pilligaensis - Pilliga Mouse

Pteropus poliocephalus - Grey-headed Flying-fox

Saccolaimus flaviventris - Yellow-bellied Sheathtail-bat

Scoteanax rueppellii - Greater Broad-nosed Bat

Vespadelus baverstocki - Inland Forest Bat

Reptiles

Anomalopus mackayi - Five-clawed Worm-skink

Aprasia inaurita - Mallee Worm Lizard

Aprasia parapulchella - Pink-tailed Legless Lizard

Cyclodomorphus melanops subsp. elongata - Gunther's Skink

Delma impar - Striped Legless Lizard

Echiopsis curta - Bardick

Hoplocephalus bitorquatus - Pale-headed Snake

Hoplocephalus bungaroides - Broad-headed Snake

Suta flagellum - Little Whip Snake

Tiliqua occipitalis - Western Blue-tongued Lizard

Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla - Southeastern Lined Earless Dragon

Underwoodisaurus sphyrurus - Border Thick-tailed Gecko

Amphibians

Litoria aurea - Green and Golden Bell Frog

Litoria castanea - Yellow-spotted Tree Frog

Litoria littlejohni - Littlejohn's Tree-Frog

Litoria raniformis - Southern Bell Frog

Birds

Amytornis striatus - Striated Grasswren

Amytornis textilis - Thick-billed Grasswren

Ardeotis australis - Australian bustard

Botaurus poiciloptilus - Australasian Bittern

Burhinus grallarius - Bush Stone-curlew

Cacatua leadbeateri - Major Mitchell's Cockatoo

Calyptorhynchus banksii - Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo

Calyptorhynchus lathami - Glossy Black Cockatoo

Certhionyx variegatus - Pied Honeyeater

Charadrius mongolus - Lesser Sand-plover

Cinclosoma castanotus - Chestnut Quail-thrush

Dasyornis brachyptera - Eastern Bristlebird

Drymodes brunnepygia - Southern Scrub-robin

Erythrotriorchis radiatus - Red Goshawk

Falco hypoleucos - Grey Falcon

Geophaps scripta - Squatter Pigeon

Glossopsitta porphyrocephala - Purple-crowned Lorikeet

Grantiella picta - Painted Honeyeater

Hamirostra melanosternon - Black-breasted Buzzard

Hylacola cauta - Shy Heathwren

Ixobrychus flavicollis - Black Bittern

Lathamus discolor - Swift Parrot

Leipoa ocellata - Malleefowl

Lichenostomus cratitius - Purple-gaped Honeyeater

Lichenostomus fasciogularis - Mangrove Honeyeater

Lophoictinia isura - Square-tailed Kite

Manorina melanotis - Black-eared Miner

Monarcha leucotis - White eared Monarch

Neophema chrysogaster - Orange-bellied Parrot

Neophema pulchella - Turquoise Parrot

Neophema splendida - Scarlet-chested Parrot

Nettapus coromandelianus - Cotton Pygmy-goose

Ninox connivens - Barking Owl

Ninox strenua - Powerful Owl

Oxyura australis - Blue-billed Duck

Pachycephala inornata - Gilbert's Whistler

Pachycephala rufogularis - Red-lored Whistler

Pandion haliaetus - Osprey

Petroica rodinogaster - Pink Robin

Pezoporus wallicus - Ground Parrot

Podargus ocellatus - Marbled Frogmouth

Polytelis anthopeplus - Regent Parrot

Polytelis swainsonii - Superb Parrot

Pomatostomus halli - Hall's Babbler

Psittaculirostris diophthalma coxeni - Double-eyed Fig Parrot

Ptilinopus magnificus - Wompoo Fruit-Dove

Ptilinopus regina - Rose-crowned Fruit dove

Ptilinopus superbus - Superb Fruit-dove

Sericornis brunneus - Redthroat

Stictonetta naevosa - Freckled Duck

Todiramphus chloris - Collared Kingfisher

Turnix melanogaster - Black-breasted Button-quail

Tyto capensis - Grass Owl

Tyto novaehollandiae - Masked Owl

Tyto tenebricosa - Sooty Owl

Xanthomyza phrygia - Regent Honeyeater


Invertebrates

Gastropods

Meridolum corneovirens - a large land snail

Thersites mitchellae - a land snail

Insects

Paralucia spinifera - Bathurst Copper Butterfly

Synemon plana - the Golden Sun Moth

Nurus atlas - a carab beetle

Nurus brevis - a carab beetle

Plants

Acacia acanthoclada

Acacia atrox ms

Acacia bynoeana

Acacia courtii

Acacia gordonii

Acacia pubescens

Acacia ruppii

Acacia terminalis subsp. terminalis

Acronychia littoralis

Alexfloydia repens

Allocasuarina defungens

Allocasuarina glareicola

Almaleea cambagei

Amyema scandens

Ancistrachne maidenii

Angophora inopina

Austromyrtus fragrantissima

Austrostipa metatoris

Boronia repanda

Boronia ruppi

Bothriochloa biloba

Brachycome muelleroides

Brachycome papillosa

Caladenia concolor

Callistemon linearifolius

Callitris oblonga

Choricarpia subargentea

Corchorus cunninghamii

Cratystylis conocephala

Cryptocarya foetida

Cryptostylis hunteriana

Cynanchum elegans

Darwinia biflora

Davidsonia pruriens var. jerseyana

Davidsonia sp. A Mullumbimby

Digitaria porrecta

Dillwynia glaucula

Dillwynia tenuifolia

Diospyros mabacea

Diploglottis campbellii

Diuris arenaria

Diuris disposita

Diuris pedunculata

Diuris sp. aff. chrysantha (Byron Bay)

Drynaria rigidula

Elaeocarpus sp. Rocky Creek

Eleocharis tetraquetra

Endiandra hayesii

Endiandra muelleri subsp. bracteata

Epacris purpurascens var. purpurascens

Eriocaulon carsonii

Eucalyptus approximans

Eucalyptus camfieldii

Eucalyptus camphora subsp. relicta

Eucalyptus magnificata

Eucalyptus mckieana

Eucalyptus parramattensis subsp. decadens

Eucalyptus pulverulenta

Eucalyptus rubida subsp. barbigerorum

Eucalyptus sp. Cattai

Floydia praealta

Fontainea oraria

Genoplesium plumosum

Genoplesium rhyoliticum

Grammitis stenophylla

Grevillea beadleana

Grevillea caleyi

Grevillea hilliana

Grevillea juniperina subsp. juniperina

Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora

Grevillea parviflora subsp. supplicans

Grevillea scortechinii subsp. sarmentosa

Grevillea wilkinsonii

Irenepharsus trypherus

Isoglossa eranthemoides

Kunzea rupestris

Lasiopetalum behrii

Lasiopetalum joyceae

Lepiderema pulchella

Lepidium aschersonii

Lepidium hyssopifolium

Lepidium monoplocoides

Leptospermum thompsonii

Leucopogon fletcheri subsp. fletcheri

Lindsaea fraseri

Lindsaea incisa

Macadamia tetraphylla

Marsdenia longiloba

Melaleuca biconvexa

Melaleuca deanei

Melaleuca tamariscina subsp. irbyana

Melichrus hirsutus

Melichrus sp. Gibberagee

Micromyrtus grandis

Ochrosia moorei

Olax angulata

Olearia flocktoniae

Owenia cepiodora

Persicaria elatior

Persoonia bargoensis


Persoonia hirsuta

Persoonia mollis subsp. maxima

Persoonia nutans

Persoonia pauciflora

Phaius australis

Phaius tankervilliae

Pimelea curviflora var. curviflora

Prasophyllum affine

Prasophyllum petilum

Prostanthera askania

Prostanthera junonis

Psoralea parva

Pterostylis gibbosa

Pterostylis saxicola

Pultenaea parviflora

Pultenaea pedunculata

Quassia sp. Mooney Creek

Randia moorei

Rapanea sp. A Richmond River

Rulingia procumbens

Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides

Sarcochilus weinthalii

Senecio garlandii

Senna acclinis

Sophora tomentosa

Styphelia perileuca

Swainsona murrayana

Swainsona recta

Swainsona sericea

Syzygium hodgkinsoniae

Syzygium moorei

Tasmannia glaucifolia

Tasmannia purpurascens

Tetratheca juncea

Thesium australe

Triplarina nowraensis

Tylophora woollsii

Zieria baeuerlenii

Zieria floydii

Zieria granulata


Populations

Vertebrates

Adelotus brevis - Tusked frog population in the Nandewar and New England Tablelands Bioregion

Callocephalon fimbriatum - Gang-gang Cockatoo population in the Hornsby and Ku-ring-gai Local Government Areas

Calyptorhynchus lathami - Glossy Black-Cockatoo, Riverina population

Eudyptula minor - Little Penguin in the Manly Point Area

Petrogale penicillata - Brush tailed Rock Wallaby, Warrumbungles population

Petaurus norfolcensis - Squirrel Glider in the Wagga Wagga Local Government Area

Petaurus norfolcensis - Squirrel Glider on Barrenjoey Peninsula, north of Bushrangers Hill

Phascolarctos cinereus - Koala, Hawks Nest and Tea Gardens population

Phascolarctos cinereus - Koala in the Pittwater Local Government Area

Menippus fugitivus - Menippus fugitivus population in the Sutherland Shire


Plants

Acacia prominens - Gosford Wattle, Hurstville and Kogarah Local Government Areas

Cryptandra longistaminea - Cryptandra longistaminea in the vicinity of Ellandgrove Road, South Grafton

Darwinia fascicularis subsp. oligantha - Darwinia fascicularis subsp. oligantha population in the Baulkham Hills and Hornsby Local Government Areas

Dillwynia tenuifolia - Dillwynia tenuifolia, Kemps Creek

Glycine clandestina (broad leaf form)- Glycine clandestina (broad leaf form) population in the Nambucca Local Government Area

Hibbertia incana - Hibbertia incana in the Local Government Area of Baulkham Hills

Keraudrenia corrolata var. denticulata - Keraudrenia corrolata var. denticulata in the Hawkesbury Local Government Area

Lespedeza juncea subsp. sericea - Lespedeza juncea subsp. sericea population in the Wollongong Local Government Area

Pomaderris prunifolia - Pomaderris prunifolia in the Parramatta, Auburn, Strathfield and Bankstown Local Government Areas

Wahlenbergia multicaulis - Tadgell's Bluebell in the Local Government Areas of Auburn, Bankstown, Strathfield and Canterbury

Ecological Communities

Acacia loderi Shrublands

Agnes Banks Woodland in the Sydney Basin Bioregion

Blue Gum High Forest

Blue Mountains Shale Cap Forest in the Sydney Basin Bioregion

Byron Bay Dwarf Graminoid Clay Heath Community

Cadellia pentastylis (Ooline) community in the Nandewar and Brigalow Belt South IBRA Regions

Carbeen Open Forest community in the Darling Riverine Plains and Brigalow Belt South Bioregions

Castlereagh Swamp Woodland Community

Cooks River Clay Plain Scrub Forest

Cumberland Plain Woodland

Duffys Forest vegetation community

Eastern Suburbs Banksia Scrub

Elderslie Banksia Scrub Forest

Howell Shrublands in the Northern Tablelands and Nandewar Bioregions

Illawarra Lowlands Grassy Woodland in the Sydney Basin Bioregion

Kurnell Dune Forest in the Sutherland Shire and City of Rockdale

Lowland Rainforest on Floodplain in the New South Wales North Coast Bioregion

Low Woodland with Heathland on Indurated Sand at Norah Head

Mc Kies Stringybark/Blackbutt Open Forest in the Nandewar and New England Bioregions

Mount Gibraltar Forest in the Sydney Basin Bioregion

O'Hares Creek Shale Forest

Pittwater Spotted Gum Forest

Robertson Basalt Tall Open-forest in the Sydney Basin Bioregion

Robertson Rainforest in the Sydney Basin Bioregion

Semi-evergreen Vine Thicket in the Brigalow Belt South and Nandewar Bioregions

Shale/Sandstone Transition Forest

Southern Highlands Shale Woodlands in the Sydney Basin Bioregion

Sutherland Shire Littoral Rainforest

Sydney Coastal Estuary Swamp Forest in the Sydney Basin Bioregion

Sydney Coastal River-flat Forest

Sydney Freshwater Wetlands in the Sydney Basin Bioregion

Sydney Turpentine-Ironbark Forest

Western Sydney Dry Rainforest in the Sydney Basin Bioregion

This list (Appendix 1) was compiled from a number of sources including the following:

Anonymous (1997) State-wide Conservation Status of Threatened Species in NSW. NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Ayers, D., Nash, S. & Baggett, K. (1996) Threatened species of western NSW. NSW NPWS.

Benson, J. (1991) Species Recovery Plan for Grevillea beadleana. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program Project No. 155.

Benson, J. (1993) The biology and management of Ooline (Cadellia pentastylis) in NSW. Species management report number 2. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Benwell, A.S. (1992) Species Recovery Plan for Allocasuarina defungens. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program Project No. 155.

Benwell, A.S. (1994) Recovery Plan for Swamp Orchids Phaius australis, Phaius tancarvilliae. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency Endangered Species Program Project No. 371.

Briggs, J. D. & Leigh J. H. (1990) Delineation of Important Habitats of Threatened Plant Species in South-eastern NSW. Australian Heritage Commission Report.

Cohn, J. (1993) Conservation Research Statement and Recovery Plans (Research & Management) for Kunzea rupestris Blakely. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program Project No. 251.

Ecotone Ecological Consultants (1998) The RARE plant species Persoonia pauciflora - Branxton Rd, North Rothbury.

Elks, G., Brown, D. & Cotsell, N. (1999) Eleocharis tetraquetra Nees. Recovery Plan. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.

ESP Ecological Surveys & Planning (1998) . Hornsby Shire Threatened Biota Management Plan. Unpublished consultancy report.

Griffith, S.J. (1992) Species Recovery Plan for Thesium australe. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program Project No. 196.

Griffith, S.J. (1992) Species Recovery Plan for Olearia flocktoniae Maiden & Betche. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program Project No. 155.

Halford, D. (1995) Conservation Statement and Draft Recovery Plan for Corchorus cunninghamii F. Muell. (Tiliaceae). Queensland Herbarium report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency Endangered Species Program Project No. 515.

Halford, D. (1995) Digitaria porrecta S.T. Blake (Poaceae) A Conservation Statement. Queensland Herbarium report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency Endangered Species Program Project No. 482.

Hunter, J., Jay, A., Nicholson, N. & H., and Horton, S. (undated) Species Recovery Plan for Acronychia littoralis (Hartley and Williams). NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program Project No. 155.

Hunter, J., Jay, A., Nicholson, N. & H., and Horton, S. (undated) Species Recovery Plan for Diploglottis campbellii (Cheel). NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program Project No. 155.

Hunter, J., Jay, A., Nicholson, N. & H., and Horton, S. (undated) Species Recovery Plan for Fontainea oraria (Jessup and Guymer). NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program Project No. 155.

Matthes, M & Nash, S. (1993) Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Cynanchum elegans. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency Endangered Species Program Project No. 311.

Mills, K. & Jakeman, J. (1993) Survey of the rare plant species Zieria granulata, Illawarra Region NSW. Kiama Council.

Murray, A.S. (1995) Draft Species Recovery Plan for Red-fruited Ebony Diospyros mabacea (F. Muell.) F. Muell. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency Endangered Species Program Project.

Nash, S. & Matthes, M. (1995) Progress Report for Persoonia nutans and Allocasuarina portuensis. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency Endangered Species Program Project No. 503.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (1999) Draft Prostanthera junonis Recovery Plan. NSW NPWS, Hurstville.

NSW Scientific Committee Determinations.

Peacock, R. J. (1996) ROTAP Species of the Walcha/Nundle and Styx River Management Areas. State Forests, Northern Region.

Quality Environmental Management Pty Limited (1994) Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Pterostylis gibbosa. Report prepared to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency Endangered Species Program Project No. 250.

Quinn, F. C., Williams, J. B., Gross, C. L. & Bruhl, J. J. (1995) Report on Rare and Threatened Plants of North-eastern NSW. Confidential report.

Scott, J., Marshall, A. & Auld, T.D. (1995) Conservation Research Statement and Recovery Plan for Grevillea caleyi. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency Endangered Species Program. Endangered Species Project No. 456.

Sheringham, P. & Westaway, J. (1995) Significant Vascular Plants of Upper North-eastern NSW. NSW NPWS.

Swainsona recta Recovery Team (1994) Draft Recovery Plan for Swainsona recta A.T. Lee (Small Purple Pea) NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency Endangered Species Program.

Whelan, R.J. & Leonard, G. (1994) Conservation Research Statement and Research Plan for Zieria "baeuerlenii" ms. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency Endangered Species Program.

Winning, G. (Shortland Wetlands Centre) (1992) Conservation status of rare plants in the Lake Macquarie area. Report for Lake Macquarie City Council.

Zich, F.A. (1992) Draft Conservation Research Statement and Research Plan for Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides F. Muell. (Button wrinklewort).


APPENDIX 2

Species, populations and ecological communities that could become threatened by this threatening process

This list is provided to substantiate that the key threatening process satisfies section 15(b) of the Threatened Species Conservation Act. The determination applies to clearing of native vegetation as a process, regardless of the species, populations and communities affected in a particular instance.

The species listed in the Appendix or populations of these species could become threatened by this threatening process.


Vertebrates

Mammals

Acrobates pygmaeus - Feathertail Glider

Antechinus flavipes - Yellow-footed Antechinus

Antechinus swainsonii - Dusky Antechinus

Isoodon macrourus - Northern Brown Bandicoot

Perameles nasuta - Long-nosed Bandicoot

Petaurus breviceps - Sugar Glider

Pseudocheirus peregrinus - Common Ringtail Possum

Pseudomys novaehollandiae - New Holland Mouse

Pteropus scapulatus - Little Red Flying-fox

Rattus fuscipes - Bush Rat

Rattus lutreolus - Swamp Rat

Trichosurus caninus - Mountain Brushtail Possum

Trichosurus vulpecula - Common Brushtail Possum

Wallabia bicolor - Swamp Wallaby

Reptiles

Ctenophorus fordi

Ctenotus brachyonyx

Ctenotus ingrami

Morethia obscura

Proablepharus kinghorni

Delma australis

Gehyra dubia

Oedura monolis

Morelia spilota variegata

Birds

Climacteris picumnus victoriae - Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies)

Melanodryas cucullata cucullata - Hooded Robin (south-eastern form)

Melithreptus gularis - Black-chinned Honeyeater

Neophema bourkii - Bourke's Parrot

Pomatostomus temporalis temporalis - Grey-crowned Babbler (eastern subspecies)

Pyrrholaemus sagittata - Speckled Warbler

Stagonopleura guttata - Diamond Firetail

Strepera versicolor melanoptera - Black-winged Currawong


Invertebrates

Insects

Aryreus hyberius inconstans

Cooraboorama canberrae

Cressida cressida

Keyacris scurra

Laxabilla smaragdina

Lestis spp. (carpenter bees)

Ocbadistes knightorium

Ornithoptera richmondia

Perunga ochracea

Telicota eurychlora

Tomoceridae spp.

Xanthorhoini (some species)

Plants

Acacia fulva

Acianthus amplexicaulis

Amphibromus pithogastrus

Boronia fraseri

Boronia serrulata

Brasenia schreberi

Callistemon shiressii

Discaria pubescens

Eucalyptus luehmanniana

Eucalyptus michaeliana

Euphrasia ciliolata

Grevillea granulifera

Grevillea longifolia

Hibbertia nitida

Lomandra brevis

Tetratheca neglecta

Typhonium eliosurum

Ecological Communities

Grassy Woodland Communities

Riparian Communities

This list (Appendix 2) was compiled from a number of sources including the following:

Anonymous (1997) State-wide Conservation Status of Threatened Species in NSW. NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Auld, T.D. & Scott, J. (1997) Conservation of endangered plants in urban fire-prone habitats. In 'Proceedings - Fire Effects on Rare and Endangered Species and Habitats Conference, Coeur D'Alene, Idaho, USA'. (Ed. J.M. Greenlee), pp. 163-171. (International Association of Wildland Fire: USA.)

Ayers, D., Nash, S. & Baggett, K. (1996) Threatened species of western NSW. NSW NPWS.

Briggs, J. D. & Leigh J. H. (1990) Delineation of Important Habitats of Threatened Plant Species in South-eastern NSW. Australian Heritage Commission.

ESP Ecological Surveys & Planning (1998) . Hornsby Shire Threatened Biota Management Plan. Unpublished consultancy report.

Maryott-Brown, K. & Wilks, D. (1993) Rare and Endangered Plants of Yengo National Park and adjacent areas. NSW NPWS.

Peacock, R. J. (1996) ROTAP Species of the Walcha/Nundle and Styx River Management Areas. State Forests, Northern Region.

Quinn, F. C., Williams, J. B., Gross, C. L. & Bruhl, J. J. (1995) Report on Rare and Threatened Plants of North-eastern NSW. Confidential report.

Sheringham, P. & Westaway, J. (1995) Significant Vascular Plants of Upper North-eastern NSW. NSW NPWS.

Thomas, J. & Benson D. H. (1985) Vegetation Survey of Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. RBG, Sydney.

Urban Bushland Biological diversity Survey (1997) Native Flora in Western Sydney. NSW NPWS.

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Zieria granulata

 

Page last updated: 28 February 2011