Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland in the Sydney Basin Bioregion - Determination to make a minor amendment to Part 3 of Schedule 1 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act

NSW Scientific Committee

The Scientific Committee, established by the Threatened Species Conservation Act, has made a Determination to make a minor amendment to Part 3 of Schedule 1 (Endangered ecological communities) of the Act by inserting the Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland in the Sydney Basin Bioregion (as described in the determination of the Scientific Committee under Division 5 Part 2) and as a consequence to omit reference to the Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland in the Sydney Basin Bioregion (as described in the final determination to list the ecological community) which was published on pages 3045 to 3048 in the NSW Government Gazette No. 93 dated 1 June 2001 Minor amendments to the Schedules are provided for by Division 5 of Part 2 of the Act.


The Scientific Committee is of the opinion that the amendment is necessary or desirable to correct minor errors or omissions in the Determination in relation to the Thackway and Cresswell (1995) reference.


The Scientific Committee has found that:


1. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland is the name given to the ecological community that occurs on soils developed over poorly-drained Tertiary sand deposits that blanket Permian sediments around Kurri Kurri. All sites are within the Sydney Basin Bioregion. Bioregions are defined in Thackway and Cresswell (1995).


2. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland generally ranges from low open-woodland to low woodland and open scrub. There is generally a low open canopy rarely exceeding 15 m in height, with Eucalyptus parramattensis subsp. decadens, Angophora bakeri and occasionally Eucalyptus signata and Eucalyptus sparsifolia. The shrubby stratum is typified by Melaleuca nodosa, Banksia spinulosa, Dillwynia retorta, Jacksonia scoparia, Hakea dactyloides, Acacia ulicifolia and Lambertia formosa and merges into the ground layer. The ground layer has grasses and low shrubs such as Entolasia stricta, Pimelea linifolia, Lissanthe strigosa and Melaleuca thymifolia. A considerable number of ground orchid species have been recorded in the area.


3. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland is a low open-woodland to low woodland and open scrub characterised by the assemblage of species listed below. While some of the species listed below may be widespread and may occur elsewhere, it is the following distinct assemblage that is recognised as the Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland ecological community.


The total species flora and fauna list for the community is considerably larger than the assemblage of species shown below, with many species present in only one or two sites or in very small quantity. In any particular site not all of the assemblage listed may be present. At any one time, seeds of some species may only be present in the soil seed bank with no above-ground individuals present. The species composition of the site will be influenced by the size of the site, recent rainfall or drought conditions and by its recent disturbance history. The community includes vertebrates and invertebrates in both soil and vegetation, many of which are poorly known.


Acacia elongata

Acacia myrtifolia

Acacia ulicifolia

Angophora bakeri

Anisopogon avenaceus

Aristida vagans

Baeckea diosmifolia

Banksia spinulosa

Bossiaea rhombifolia

Conospermum ericifolium

Cyathochaeta diandra

Dampiera stricta

Dianella revoluta var revoluta

Dillwynia retorta

Entolasia stricta

Eucalyptus agglomerata

Eucalyptus capitellata

Eucalyptus fibrosa

Eucalyptus parramattensis subsp decadens

Eucalyptus signata

Eucalyptus sparsifolia

Grevillea linearifolia

Grevillea montana

Haemodorum planifolium

Hakea dactyloides

Hovea linearis

Jacksonia scoparia

Lambertia formosa

Leptospermum polygalifolium

Leucopogon ericoides

Leucopogon virgatus

Lissanthe strigosa

Lomandra longifolia

Macrozamia flexuosa

Melaleuca decora

Melaleuca nodosa

Melaleuca sieberi

Melaleuca thymifolia

Patersonia sericea

Persoonia levis

Persoonia linearis

Phebalium squamulosum

Pimelea linifolia

Ptilothrix deusta

Themeda australis

Xanthorrhoea glauca


4. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland is or has been known to occur in the Kurri Kurri – Cessnock area in the lower Hunter Valley, in the local government area of Cessnock, but may occur elsewhere.


5. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland includes vegetation described in NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service – (2000)


6. Disturbed remnants are considered to form part of the community including remnants where the vegetation would respond to assisted natural regeneration such as where the natural soil and associated seedbank is still at least partially intact.


7. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland has been fragmented and is subject to weed invasion and ongoing disturbances. Threats include increased urbanisation, transport and utility corridors, industrial development, changes to drainage conditions, weed invasion, rubbish dumping and inappropriate fire regimes.


8. The only known occurrence of Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland reported from conservation areas is in the Lower Hunter National Park.


9. Plant species of conservation significance occurring in Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland are Eucalyptus parramattensis subsp. decadens and Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora, both listed as Vulnerable under Schedule 2.


10. In view of the small size of existing remnants, and the threat of further clearing, disturbance and degradation, the Scientific Committee is of the opinion that Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland in the Sydney Basin Bioregion is likely to become extinct in nature unless factors threatening its survival or evolutionary development cease to operate and that listing as an endangered ecological community is warranted.



Dr Richard Major


Scientific Committee


Proposed Gazettal date: 14/10/11

Exhibition period: 14/10/11 - 9/12/11


Note this ecological community was originally listed in 2001 as indicated in the determination




NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (2000). Vegetation Survey, Classification and Mapping. Lower Hunter and Central Coast Region. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney


Thackway R, Cresswell ID (1995) An interim biogeographic regionalisation for Australia: a framework for setting priorities in the National Reserves System Cooperative Program. (Version 4.0. Australian Nature Conservation Agency: Canberra.)


Page last updated: 14 October 2011