Tweed River

Physical characteristics

Latitude (ºS)-28.17
Longitude (ºE)153.56
Catchment area (km2)11054.8
Estuary area (km2)1,222.7
Estuary volume (ML)356954.6
Average depth (m)42.6
Roy et al. (2001) classification5III/5/D
Entrance condition6O/T
  1. Derived from DECCW (2010) NSW estuaries and coastal catchments spatial database.
  2. Includes area mapped as open water (see note 1), mangrove and saltmarsh areas (Creese R. G., Glasby T. M., West G. and Gallen C. (2009) Mapping the habitats of NSW estuaries. Industry & Investment NSW Fisheries Final Report Series 113. Port Stephens, NSW, Australia.
  3. Based on areas at 0.6 m AHD (Roper T., Creese B., Scanes P., Stephens K., Williams R., Dela-Cruz J., Coade G. and Coates B. (2011) Assessing the condition of estuaries and coastal lake ecosystems in NSW. Office of Environment and Heritage, Sydney).
  4. Estimated by dividing the total volume at 0.6 m AHD by the total surface area of the estuary including mangrove areas but excluding saltmarsh (Roper et al., 2011)
  5. Estuary group: I = oceanic embayment, II = tide dominated estuary, III = wave dominated estuary, IV = intermittently closed estuary V = freshwater bodies
    Estuary type: 1 = ocean embayments, 3 = drowned valley estuary, 5 = barrier estuary, 6 = barrier lagoon, 7 = interbarrier estuary, 8 = saline coastal lagoon, 9 = small coastal creeks, 11 = brackish barrier lake. Evolution stage: A=youthful, B=intermediate, C=semi-mature, D=mature.
    (P. S. Roy, R. J. Williams, A. R. Jones, I. Yassini, P. J. Gibbs, B. Coates, R. J. West, P. R. Scanes, J. P. Hudson and S. Nichol (2001) Structure and Function of South-east Australian Estuaries. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 53, 351-384)
  6. Entrance conditions: O = open, T = trained, I = intermittent.

Tidal prism

The volume of water moving past a fixed cross section during each flood tide or ebb tide (i.e. slack water to slack water), is referred to as the tidal prism of an estuary.

The following table shows the measured tidal prism at the location specified, along with the tidal range for near the measurement site and at Sydney Harbour.

Location:     1.2km upstream from the ocean on 17/2/88

Tide stateFlow
(106 m3
tidal range (m)
Sydney Harbour
tidal range (m)
Ebb flow13.491.551.83
Flood flow 6.911.021.34

Tidal survey

Tidal surveys measure the hydrodynamic behaviour of an estuary during a full tidal cycle. The parameters measured include velocity, water levels, salinity, temperature and pH.

The following tidal surveys have been undertaken on this estuary. A map shows the location and plots of the flows and water levels for the most comprehensive survey.

Copies of tidal survey reports are available from the Estuary Management Program

DateData collectedFigureReport
Jul 1975Current metering on four lines and water level at ten tideboards.-MHL347
1976-78Tidal flow data, bed and suspended sediment samples were collected in a comprehensive program to assess impact of sand extraction.-PWD78009
Mar 1977Current metering at five lines: water levels and temp/salinity.-MHL550
May 1980Minor flooding monitored from Barneys Point bridge and Boyds Bay bridge.-MHL304
Sep 1980Current metering on seven lines plus bed form monitoring by divers.-MHL312
Sep 1980Temperature/salinity profiles.-MHL312
Sep 1980Bed samples collected.-MHL312
Sep 1980Current metering on four lines.-MHL312
Oct 1980Temperature/salinity profiles.-MHL312
Feb 1988Current metering (full tidal cycle) at five lines: echo sounding (five lines), four Floatwells, four tideboards, one Aanderaa, temp/salinity readings (five lines).1988-01.pdfMHL550

Hydrographic survey

The hydrographic survey provides the depth and physical characteristics of the estuary.

The metadata associated with the survey can be found on the map sheets provided.

Map sheet number DescriptionScale    Size
51647photo1.pdfCross section locations - Tweed River lower estuary1:20000875.3kb
51647photo2.pdfCross section locations - Tweed River & Teranora Inlet1:200001339.2kb
51647photo3.pdfCross section locations - Tweed River lower estuary1:200001332.4kb
51647photo4.pdfCross section locations - Tweed River lower estuary1:200001314.8kb
51647photo5.pdfCross section locations - Teranora Inlet1:200001316.1kb
51647photo6.pdfCross section locations - Teranora Inlet1:200001266.0kb
51647photo7.pdfCross section locations - Teranora Inlet1:200001335.8kb
10232S01.pdfCross sections - Tweed River lower estuary1:1000 H 1:200 V169.8kb
10232S02.pdfCross sections - Tweed River lower estuary1:1000 H 1:200 V163.1kb
10232S03.pdfCross sections - Tweed River lower estuary1:1000 H 1:200 V185.0kb
10232S04.pdfCross sections - Tweed River lower estuary1:1000 H 1:200 V136.8kb
10232S05.pdfCross sections - Tweed River lower estuary1:1000 H 1:200 V142.8kb
10232S06.pdfCross sections - Tweed River lower estuary1:1000 H 1:200 V145.5kb
10232S07.pdfCross sections - Tweed River lower estuary1:1000 H 1:200 V126.6kb
10232S08.pdfCross sections - Tweed River lower estuary1:1000 H 1:200 V184.1kb
10232S09.pdfCross sections - Tweed River lower estuary1:1000 H 1:200 V153.6kb
10232S10.pdfCross sections - Tweed River & Teranora Inlet1:1000 H 1:200 V159.2kb
10232S11.pdfCross sections - Teranora Inlet1:1000 H 1:200 V169.5kb
10232S12.pdfCross sections - Teranora Inlet1:1000 H 1:200 V183.3kb
10232S13.pdfCross sections - Teranora Inlet1:1000 H 1:200 V149.0kb
10232S14.pdfCross sections - Teranora Inlet1:1000 H 1:200 V154.5kb
10232S15.pdfCross sections - Teranora Inlet1:1000 H 1:200 V225.4kb
10232S16.pdfCross sections - Teranora Inlet1:1000 H 1:200 V192.0kb
10232b.txtTeranora Inlet xyz dataN/A23.1kb
10232a.txtTweed River xyz dataN/A128.9kb
Page last updated: 03 February 2012