What are wild dogs?
A wild dog is any dog living in the wild, including feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), dingoes (Canis lupus dingo), and hybrids of the two.
Why are they a pest?
Wild dogs can have significant impacts on livestock, especially sheep. As a result, they have been declared a pest under the Local Land Services Act 2013. Under the Act, managers of controlled land have an obligation to eradicate wild dogs by any lawful method. All land in NSW is identified as controlled land under the current Pest Control Order for Wild Dogs.
Wild dogs may have both positive and negative impacts on the environment but these interactions and any net outcomes are not well understood. Predation by wild dogs can reduce the impacts of overgrazing in arid and semi-arid ecosystems by regulating the abundance of native and exotic herbivores. Under some circumstances, wild dogs may also suppress the abundance or activity of other pest animals such as cats and foxes. Conversely, under some circumstances, predation by dogs may have significant direct impacts on threatened species such as koalas.
Dingoes in NSW
Dingoes were introduced into Australia from Asia by humans around 4000 years ago. They established across the mainland and on many offshore islands, probably assisted by Aboriginal people. Their introduction has been linked to the extinction of the thylacine (Tasmanian tiger) and the Tasmanian devil on the mainland.
Previously widespread, dingoes are largely restricted to the Great Dividing Range, coastal hinterlands and the north-west of the state. Ongoing hybridisation with feral dogs poses the most significant threat to their persistence in these areas. Wild dog control and loss of habitat also pose a threat to dingo populations.
The current status of dingo populations in NSW is uncertain and the proportion of pure dingoes in remaining populations is not known. However, both pure-bred and hybridised dingos continue to pose a threat to livestock, native species and people.
Predation and hybridisation by feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)has been listed as a key threatening process in New South Wales by the NSW Scientific Committee.
Managing wild dogs in our national parks
To balance the need to control wild dogs with the conservation of dingoes, the Pest Control Order for Wild Dogs allows the general destruction obligation for lands listed under Schedule 2 of the Order to be satisfied through the preparation of a wild dog management plan with both control of wild dogs and conservation of dingoes.
Schedule 2 lists 74 national parks, 28 nature reserves, 7 state conservation areas, 144 state forests, 4 Crown land reserves and the Sydney Catchment Authority Special Area.
To help manage wild dogs in our national parks, we:
- develop state and regional pest management strategies
- carry out pest control programs
- work with other agencies.
The Office of Environment and Heritage (OEH) and National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) undertake wild dog management programs in many national parks and reserves along the coast, Great Diving Range, Northern, Central and Southern Tablelands and in the far north-west of the state. Because wild dogs are widespread and eradication is not feasible, priority programs for wild dog control have been established. These are outlined in our regional pest management strategies.
The main objective of these programs is to minimise the impacts of wild dogs on native species and on livestock on adjoining lands. Management programs are also undertaken to minimise the risks that wild dogs pose to park visitors and staff.
We work closely with other public-land managers, including the Department of Primary Industries, Local Land Services and the Department of Industry – Lands and Forestry and park neighbours to deliver cooperative control programs. This includes the development of the wild dog management strategies.
The NSW Wild Dog Management Strategy 2017–2021 identifies specific actions to ensure we maintain and build on existing wild dog management, policy, research and training approaches in NSW.
Read more about our wild dogs parks policy.
Under the Biosecurity Act 2015, pest animal management is recognised as a shared responsibility for all community members. Both private and public landowners are required to control wild dogs to minimise the risk of any negative impacts on their lands or that of their neighbours.
Control methods for wild dogs in national parks include ground baiting, aerial baiting, trapping, shooting and fencing. Management is most effective when a combination of methods is used and when land managers work cooperatively.