Kurri sand swamp woodland in the Sydney Basin Bioregion - endangered ecological community listing

NSW Scientific Committee - final determination

The Scientific Committee, established by the Threatened Species Conservation Act, has made a Final Determination to list the Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland in the Sydney Basin Bioregion as an ENDANGERED ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY on Part 3 of Schedule 1 of the Act. The listing of Endangered Ecological Communities is provided for by Part 2 of the Act.

The Scientific Committee has found that:

1. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland is the name given to the ecological community that occurs on soils developed over poorly-drained Tertiary sand deposits that blanket Permian sediments around Kurri Kurri. All sites are within the Sydney Basin Bioregion.

2. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland generally ranges from low open-woodland to low woodland and open scrub. There is generally a low open canopy rarely exceeding 15 m in height, with Eucalyptus parramattensis subsp. decadens, Angophora bakeri and occasionally Eucalyptus signata and Eucalyptus sparsifolia. The shrubby stratum is typified by Melaleuca nodosa, Banksia spinulosa, Dillwynia retorta, Jacksonia scoparia, Hakea dactyloides, Acacia ulicifolia and Lambertia formosa and merges into the ground layer. The ground layer has grasses and low shrubs such as Entolasia stricta, Pimelea linifolia, Lissanthe strigosa and Melaleuca thymifolia. A considerable number of ground orchid species have been recorded in the area.

3. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland is a low open-woodland to low woodland and open scrub characterised by the assemblage of species listed below. While some of the species listed below may be widespread and may occur elsewhere, it is the following distinct assemblage that is recognised as the Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland ecological community.

The total species flora and fauna list for the community is considerably larger than the assemblage of species shown below, with many species present in only one or two sites or in very small quantity. In any particular site not all of the assemblage listed may be present. At any one time, seeds of some species may only be present in the soil seed bank with no above-ground individuals present. The species composition of the site will be influenced by the size of the site, recent rainfall or drought conditions and by its recent disturbance history. The community includes vertebrates and invertebrates in both soil and vegetation, many of which are poorly known.

  • Acacia elongata
  • Acacia myrtifolia
  • Acacia ulicifolia
  • Angophora bakeri
  • Anisopogon avenaceus
  • Aristida vagans
  • Baeckea diosmifolia
  • Banksia spinulosa
  • Bossiaea rhombifolia
  • Conospermum ericifolium
  • Cyathochaeta diandra
  • Dampiera stricta
  • Dianella revoluta var revoluta
  • Dillwynia retorta
  • Entolasia stricta
  • Eucalyptus agglomerata
  • Eucalyptus capitellata
  • Eucalyptus fibrosa
  • Eucalyptus parramattensis subsp decadens
  • Eucalyptus signata
  • Eucalyptus sparsifolia
  • Grevillea linearifolia
  • Grevillea montana
  • Haemodorum planifolium
  • Hakea dactyloides
  • Hovea linearis
  • Jacksonia scoparia
  • Lambertia formosa
  • Leptospermum polygalifolium
  • Leucopogon ericoides
  • Leucopogon virgatus
  • Lissanthe strigosa
  • Lomandra longifolia
  • Macrozamia flexuosa
  • Melaleuca decora
  • Melaleuca nodosa
  • Melaleuca sieberi
  • Melaleuca thymifolia
  • Patersonia sericea
  • Persoonia levis
  • Persoonia linearis
  • Phebalium squamulosum
  • Pimelea linifolia
  • Ptilothrix deusta
  • Themeda australis
  • Xanthorrhoea glauca
4. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland is or has been known to occur in the Kurri Kurri - Cessnock area in the lower Hunter Valley, in the local government area of Cessnock, but may occur elsewhere.

5. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland includes vegetation described in NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service - (2000).

6. Disturbed remnants are considered to form part of the community including remnants where the vegetation would respond to assisted natural regeneration such as where the natural soil and associated seedbank is still at least partially intact.

7. Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland has been fragmented and is subject to weed invasion and ongoing disturbances. Threats include increased urbanisation, transport and utility corridors, industrial development, changes to drainage conditions, weed invasion, rubbish dumping and inappropriate fire regimes.

8. The only known occurrence of Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland reported from conservation areas is in the Lower Hunter National Park.

9. Plant species of conservation significance occurring in Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland are Eucalyptus parramattensis subsp. decadens and Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora, both listed as Vulnerable under Schedule 2.

10. In view of the small size of existing remnants, and the threat of further clearing, disturbance and degradation, the Scientific Committee is of the opinion that Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland in the Sydney Basin Bioregion is likely to become extinct in nature unless factors threatening its survival or evolutionary development cease to operate and that listing as an endangered ecological community is warranted.

Proposed Gazettal date: 1/6/01

Exhibition period: 1/6/01 - 6/7/01


NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (2000). Vegetation Survey, Classification and Mapping. Lower Hunter and Central Coast Region. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.

About the NSW Scientific Committee

Page last updated: 28 February 2011